holds a Ph.D. in Politics, University of Hull (UK) (1993); M.A. in European Integration and Cooperation (1990) (U. Hull). He holds degrees in Sociology and Political Science (Universidad Complutense, UCM), Madrid, 1987. Between 2004 and 2008, he was Deputy Director of the Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales (Ministry of Presidency) and between 2005 and 2009, he was member of the Venice Commission for Democracy through Law (Council of Europe) representing Spain. He has been formerly professor at the University of Zaragoza, Complutense (Madrid) and tutor at the University of Hull. He has been Visiting Professor at the College of Europe (Bruges) and he has been Professor at the Instituto Universitario Ortega y Gasset (IUOG), Madrid since 1999. He was also Visiting Fellow at the Minda de Gunzburg Centre of Harvard University (2002) and Jean Monnet Fellow (1995-1996) and Salvador de Madariaga Fellow (2004) at the European University Institute (EUI, Florence). Since 2010, he has been appointed Affiliated Scholar at the Global Governance Programme at the EUI.